Celiac disease is believed to affect a small number people who are genetically prone to the disease.
Why these people are susceptible to the disease is still up for debate. Some experts believe that it could be caused by the reaction of certain gut bacteria to gluten.
This disease is an immune related ailment where the sufferer shows intolerance to gluten which is a protein seen in whole grains which include barley, rye and wheat.
It is believed that 1% of Americans gave celiac disease. If a sufferer of this disease ingests gluten the immune system reacts by damaging the small intestine causing diarrhea, fatigue, bloating and abdominal pain.
It is believed that certain gene mutations trigger the disease, but just about 2 to 3% of individuals that have this mutation may come down with this disease.
Research findings has been published in The American Journal of Pathology. Where lab mice that are germ-free showed symptoms of celiac disease when gluten was introduced to there system.
The researchers examined 3 groups of mice with a gene known as DQ8 which is also found in humans and makes them vulnerable to gluten intolerance.
Celiac Disease Facts
– It is believed that about 83% of Americans with celiac disease are either misdiagnosed or undiagnosed with the disease.
– A gluten-free diet us the only known treatment for celiac disease.
In the tests carried out on the lab mice, each group of mice had different gut microbiomes.
In one group their gut microbiomes was germ-free, while in another their gut microbiomes was specific-pathogen-free (SPF); that is their gut microbiomes were free of Proteobacteria which is a group of gram-negative bacteria and also opportunistic pathogens.
The third group consisted of conventional SPF mice, which had several gut bacteria like opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Helicobacter and Proteobacteria.
The groups of mice were exposed to gluten, in the germ-free group of mice it was seen that they had increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) levels in their gut. The high levels of IELs is an early sign of celiac disease. This was however not noticed in the clean SPF mice.
There was also an increased death of cells known as enterocytes that line the gastrointestinal tract in the germ-free mice.
It was also discovered among the germ-free mice that antibodies developed in reaction to gliadin which is a component of gluten. The mice also had T-cell reaction that was specific to the response of the component.
In the clean SPF mice it was found that the development of gluten-induced pathology was hindered but not in germ-free mice. However, this was not the case when the clean SPF mice that received enteroadherent Escherichia coli from a sufferer with celiac disease.
The conventional SPF mice showed higher gluten-induced pathology when compared to clean SPF mice.
In conclusion the study showed that the perturbation of early microbial colonization in life and induction of dysbiosis (i.e. The microbial imbalance inside the body), which is occasioned by raised Proteobacteria, boosts the extremities of the gluten-induced reaction in the mice which are genetically predisposed to gluten, this was stated by Dr. Verdu.
It is also believed that perturbations in the intestinal microbial ecology could be responsible for the increase in the cases of celiac disease among the general population in the last half century.
There are certain microbiota-based therapies that can help in the treatment of celiac disease in patients especially those who have low to moderate genetic risk.
From the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Dr. Robin G. Lorenz stated that Proteobacteria may be vital in celiac disease pathology.
He suggested that Proteobacteria stimulates immune reaction to gliadin or gluten.
Source: Family Life Goals
Other included sources linked in Family Life Goals’s article:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/300579.php – Original Article Source